Review: AMD Radeon HD 7850 & 7870 - BeHardware
>> Graphics cards

Written by Damien Triolet

Published on March 5, 2012


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AMD took advantage of the opening of CeBIT to unveil the third and final member of the Southern Islands GPU family: Pitcairn. Powering the Radeon HD 7870 and 7850, this GPU has been designed for gamers looking for a decent compromise between price and performance. Weíre going to see if this is what they'll get with a full test of these two new graphics cards.

GPU 28nm = expensive?
With Pitcairn, the Southern Islands GPU family, based on Graphics Core Next, is finally complete. Pitcairn joins Tahiti (Radeon HD 7900s) and Cape Verde (Radeon HD 7700s) and occupies the 'performance' segment, a positioning that interests a large number of gamers.

Gamers in this segment are looking for better deals than at the very top end and what they can get for their money is the crucial selling point. And yet, it has to be said, AMD is currently far from being aggressive when it comes to pricing of the Radeon HD 7000s already available. Maybe things will be different with the Radeon HD 7800s.

NVIDIA boss Jen Hsun Huang recently confided to analysts and investors that the TSMC 28 nanometre production lines have a relatively low yield as things stand and this is making for higher costs and reducing NVIDIAís margins. This is apparently going to be the case for a few months more, before the situation improves at the end of the year.

There's no doubt, this also means AMD have less room for manoeuvre when it comes to pricing but it doesnít mean that the relatively high price tags of the Radeon HD 7900s and 7700s are entirely linked to GPU manufacturing costs. Numerous factors come into play, including the novelty effect and the lack of competition which is encouraging AMD and its partners to maximise margins.

The good news is that on one hand the competition isn't likely to be long in coming and on the other the Radeon HD 7800s give an improved price / performance ratio as you'll see further on in the article.

Before going any deeper into our subject, note that AMD is highlighting the fact that Cape Verde and Pitcairn are the first standard card series GPUs to register clocks of 1 GHz. This is why the GHz Edition branding has been introduced and could well feature in the marketing communication on the graphics cards clocked at at least this frequency.

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The Pitcairn GPU: 2x Cape Verde, 28nm and GCN

Pitcairn can be seen as a double Cape Verde (the GPU used on the Radeon HD 7700s). It has 20 Compute Units (the blocks of processing units that make up GCN cards), is capable of processing two triangles per cycle and has 32 ROPs at its disposal supplied by a 256-bit memory bus. Remember each CU includes 4 texturing units and 64 processing units organised into four 16-way vector units, for a total of 80 texturing units and 1280 processing units.

Cape Verde: 10 CUs, 1 triangle par cycle, 16 ROPs, 128 bits
Pitcairn: 20 CUs, 2 triangles per cycle, 32 ROPs, 256 bits
Tahiti: 32 CUs, 2 triangles per cycle, 32 ROPs, 384 bits

Hereís a visual of Pitcairnís internal organisation:

Pitcairn adopts the specificities of the Graphics Core Next architecture that we described in detail here. This includes a gain in efficiency because while it's based on SIMD type vector processing units, the way they behave mimic a scalar type processing of many elements (pixels/vertices) in parallel. Previously they had a 4D or 5D vector set up, which meant they could process fewer elements in parallel but required aggressive vectorisation from the compiler in terms of the code to be executed, which didnít make for maximum yield.

Pitcairn also uses a more advanced cache architecture, which includes a 512 KB L2 cache, DirectX 11.1 support, PCI Express 3.0 support and various developments with respect to GPU Computing. Pitcairn retains the 2 ACEs, which manage compute type tasks, as well as the 2 DMA engines loaded via the PCI Express port. It also supports PowerTune to control the cardís thermal envelope and ZeroPower, which almost turns off the GPU entirely in deep sleep mode (screen in standby).

Like Cape Verde, Pitcairn differs from Tahiti on one point: double precision processing is at the equivalent of 1/16th of single precision against 1/4th on Tahiti, which makes sense on GPUs that havenít been designed for professional processing.


Tahiti established a new record with 4.3 billion transistors and Cape Verde has 1.5 billion. Pitcairn falls between them with 2.8 billion. According to AMDís figures these transistors take up 212 mm≤ compared to 365 mm≤ on Tahiti and 123 mm≤ on Cape Verde.

It's also interesting to see that Pitcairn is slightly more complex than the GPU (Cayman) used on the Radeon HD 6900s . Remember Cayman had 2.64 billion transistors but was designed with a 40nm fabrication process, which meant a relatively big die size: 389 mm≤. It will thus be particularly interesting to see how these two GPUs compare to each other on the performance side!

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Specifications, the reference Radeon HD 7850 and 7870


The raw figures for the Radeon HD 7800s are slightly down on those for the Radeon HD 6900s. Just as the Radeon HD 7870 can be seen as a double Radeon HD 7770, the Radeon HD 7850 is a double Radeon HD 7750, though with a slightly higher GPU clock. The gap between the two Radeon HD 7800s is however very high, as with the Radeon HD 7700s: 45% compared to 20% between the Radeon HD 6900s!

For this test, AMD supplied us with a reference Radeon HD 7870 and 7850:

The reference Radeon HD 7870

The reference PCB on the Radeon HD 7870 measures 24cm long, but the cooling system casing sticks out by more or less 1cm. This cooler uses a radial fan, or blower, to expel hot air out of the casing. It's made up of a copper base from which 3 heatpipes lead up to an aluminium radiator. This cooling block is surrounded by a cage formed by a casing and a metallic plate that supports the block and is in contact with the memory modules. It isnít however in contact with the sensitive power stage components but there is an opening to allow them to benefit from part of the air flow.

To power the GPU (TDP = 190W) the power stage has 5 relatively basic phases which are situated between the GPU and the bracket rather than at the back of the card. There's an additional phase for the Hynix GDDR5 T2C memory thatís certified at 1.25 GHz. Two 6-pin power supply connectors are required.

The connectivity is identical to that on the other reference Radeon HD 7000s: a DVI Dual Link, a 3 GHz HDMI 1.4a out and two mini-DisplayPort 1.2 outs. Thereís just one CrossFire connector, limiting the Radeon HD 7870 to a bi-GPU set-up.

When it came to overclocking, we managed to modify the GPU voltage to obtain the following (GPU clock / memory clock @ GPU voltage: energy consumption of the card in Anno 2070):

1000 / 1200 MHz @ 1.050V: 94W
1000 / 1200 MHz @ 1.219V: 124W (by default)
1175 / 1500 MHz @ 1.219V: 144W
1200 / 1500 MHz @ 1.250V
1225 / 1500 MHz @ 1.275V
1250 / 1500 MHz @ 1.300V: 177W

The reference Radeon HD 7850

The reference Radeon HD 7850 is identical to the Radeon HD 7870 described above, with one exception: its power stage uses just 4 of the possible 5 phases for a lower TDP of 150W.

With the tools currently available, we werenít able to change the GPU voltage (GPU clock / memory clock @ GPU voltage: energy consumption of the card in Anno 2070):

860 / 1200 MHz @ 1.213V: 103W (by default)
1000 / 1550 MHz @ 1.213V: 119W

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Temperature and noise levels

To observe the noise levels produced by the various solutions, we put the cards in a Cooler Master RC-690 II Advanced casing and measured noise at idle and in load. We use an SSD and all the fans in the casing, as well as the CPU fan, were turned off for the reading. The sonometer was placed 60 cm from the closed casing and ambient noise was measured at +/- 21 dBA. Note that for all the noise and heat readings, we used the real reference design of the Radeon HD 7950, rather than the press card supplied by AMD.

The Radeon HD 7870 isnít as noisy as the Radeon HD 6970, but is still slightly noisier than the GeForce GTX 570. The blower in our sample of the Radeon HD 7850 generated a relatively loud mechanical noise at low speed, which explains why it's so noisy at idle.

Still in the same casing, we took the reading of the GPU temperature shown on the internal sensor:

The reference Radeon HD 7800s are very well cooled as the cooling system is calibrated to maintain a relatively low temperature, which we imagine is linked to the specificities of the 28nm fabrication process which doesnít enjoy high temperatures.

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Readings and infrared thermography

Readings and infrared thermography
For this test we used the new protocol as described here.

First of all here's a summary of all the readings:

Thereís a big difference in the speed of the rotation of the blowers between the two Radeon HD 7800s at 20%: 1000 rpm for one against 1100 rpm for the other. This may be due to a fault on our reference Radeon HD 7850.

The Radeon HD 7800s expel the hot air from the casing, which isnít the case with the reference Radeon HD 7950.

Here finally is what the thermal imaging shows:

Reference Radeon HD 7850
Reference Radeon HD 7870
Reference Radeon HD 6970
Reference Radeon HD 7950
  [ Idle ]  [ Load ]
  [ Idle ]  [ Load ]  [ OC ]
  [ Idle ]  [ Load ]
  [ Repos ]  [ Load ]  [ OC ]

These photos confirm that the Radeon HD 7800s are well cooled. When overclocked significantly however, the power stage can get very hot.

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Energy consumption and performance/watt

Energy consumption
We used the test protocol that allows us to measure the energy consumption of the graphics card alone. We took these readings at idle on the Windows 7 desktop as well as with the screen in standby so as to observe the impact of ZeroCore Power. In load we opted for the readings in Anno 2070, at 1080p with all options pushed to maximum, as well as those in Battlefield 3, at 1080p in High quality mode:

The Radeon HD 7800s draw very little power at idle, with the screen in standby, ZeroCore Power technology successfully reducing energy consumption to less than 3W!

In load the Radeon HD 7870 consumes about the same as the Radeon HD 6870: less in Battlefield 3 but more in Anno 2070. The Radeon HD 7850 is a notch down with consumption of 103W in the most demanding game in our test protocol.

Note that if we increase the PowerTune limit by 20%, the consumption of the HD 7800s doesnít change, which indicates that the TDP limit applied by default doesnít affect performance.

We have shown the energy consumption readings graphically, with fps per 100W to make the data more legible:

[ Anno 2070 1080p Max ]  [ Battlefield 3 1080p High ]

Thanks to the 28nm fabrication process, the energy yield has improved. Note however that each game represents a particular case and that the GeForces lag somewhat in Anno 2070 when the settings are pushed to a maximum while the architecture of the Radeon HD 7000s brings a significant gain. Thereís not so much of a gap in Battlefield 3 but the trend is the same: the Radeon HD 7870 gives the best energy yield.

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Theoretical performance: pixels

Texturing performance
We measured performance during access to textures of different formats in bilinear filtering: for standard 32-bit (8xINT8), 64-bit ďHDRĒ (4x FP16) and 128-bit (4x FP32), 32-bit depth (D32F) and 32-bit RGB9E5, an HDR format introduced with DirectX 10 which enables the storing of 32-bit HDR textures with a few compromises.

The GeForce GTX 500s can filter FP16 textures at full speed but the Radeons have such superior filtering power that even though they have to filter FP16 textures at half-speed, they arenít far behind the GeForces.

Note that we have to increase the energy consumption limit of the Radeon HD 7700s and 7800s as well as the Radeon HD 6900s to a maximum here, otherwise the clocks are cut during this test. By default the Radeons therefore seem incapable of fully benefitting from their texturing power! Note that this is no longer the case for the Radeon HD 7900s. We highlighted the proportion of the performance that can only be obtained by modifying PowerTune.

We measured the fillrate without and then with blending, and this with different data formats:

In terms of fillrate, the Radeons have an advantage over the GeForce GTX 500s, above all with FP10s, a format processed at full speed while with the GeForces itís processed at half-speed. Given the limitation of the GeForces in terms of datapaths between the SMs and ROPs, itís a shame that NVIDIA hasnít given its GPU the possibility of benefitting from FP10 and FP11 formats. While both the GeForces and the Radeon 6900s and 7000s can process the single channel FP32 format at full speed without blending, only the Radeons maintain this speed with blending.

Although the Radeon 7800s have the same number of ROPs as the Radeon HD 7900s, their lower memory bandwidth means they canít use them to a maximum with blending or with FP16 and FP32 without blending.

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Theoretical performance: geometry

Triangle throughput
Given the architectural differences between the various GPUs in terms of geometry processing, we obviously wanted to take a closer look at the subject. First of all we looked at triangle throughput in two different situations: when all triangles are drawn and when all the triangles are removed with back face culling (because they arenít facing the camera):

Although the Radeon HD 7900s, 7800s and 6900s are indeed able to process 2 triangles per cycle, the GeForce GTX 580 retains the advantage with 4 triangles per cycle. When the triangles have to be rendered however, performance is reduced as NVIDIA has limited it to differentiate the Quadros and the GeForces.

Next we carried out a similar test but using tessellation:

The Radeon HD 7800s are only very slightly behind the Radeon HD 7900s here. Strangely, the Radeon HD 7900s and 7800s donít seem to be able to benefit from their double tessellation unit when the triangles have to be rendered and donít then have any advantage over the Radeon HD 7700s.

The architecture of the Radeons means that they can be overloaded by the quantity of data generated, which then drastically reduces their speed. Doubling the size of the buffer dedicated to the GPU tessellation unit in the Radeon HD 6800s meant they gave significantly higher performance than the Radeon HD 5000s. AMD has continued down this line with the Radeon HD 7000s.

For reasons unknown, the GeForce GTX 570 gives better performance here than the GeForce GTX 580. In any case, these GeForces retain the advantage.

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Test protocol

The test
For this test, we used the protocol introduced for the report on the Radeon HD 7970 which includes some new games: Anno 2070, Batman Arkham City, Battlefield 3, F1 2011 and Total War Shogun 2. We also added Alan Wake.

We have decided no longer to use the level of MSAA (4x and 8x) as the main criteria for segmenting our results. Many games with deferred rendering offer other forms of antialiasing, the most common being FXAA, developed by NVIDIA It therefore no longer makes sense to organise an index around a certain level of antialiasing, which in the past allowed us to judge a card according to its effectiveness with MSAA, which can vary according to implementation.

At 1920x1080, we carried out the tests with three different quality levels: extreme, very high, which automatically included some antialiasing (either MSAA 4x, or FXAA/MLAA/AAA), and medium.

We no longer show decimals in game performance results so as to make the graph more legible. We nevertheless note these values and use them when calculating the index. If youíre observant youíll notice that the size of the bars also reflects this.

The Radeons were tested with the beta 8.95.5-120224a drivers and the GeForces with the 295.73 drivers.

Test configuration
Intel Core i7 980X (HT and Turbo off)
Asus Rampage III Extreme
Corsair 6 GB DDR3 1333
Windows 7 64-bit
GeForce 295.73 drivers
Catalyst beta 8.95.5-120224a

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Benchmark: Alan Wake

Alan Wake

Alan Wake is a pretty well executed title ported from console and and based on DirectX 9.

We used the gameís Medium and High quality levels and added a maximum quality level with 8x MSAA. We carried out a well defined movement and measured performance with Fraps.

Hold the mouse over the graph to class cards by performance.

The Radeon HD 7000s do particularly well in this game, easily outdoing the GeForces. The Radeon HD 7870 has an advantage over the GeForce GTX 580 and the Radeon HD 7850 is slightly up on the GeForce GTX 570.

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Benchmark: Anno 2070

Anno 2070

Anno 2070 uses a development of the Anno 1404 engine which includes DirectX 11 support.

We used the very high quality mode on offer in the game and then the medium quality mode. We added a max quality mode that introduces more complex post processing and increases the level of anisotropic filtering. We carried out a well defined movement and measured performance with Fraps.

Hold the mouse over the graph to class cards by performance.

The Radeon HD 7700s do particularly well in this game. As well as having an advantage over the GeForce GTX 580, the Radeon HD 7870 is even slightly up on the Radeon HD 7950 in some modes.

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Benchmark: Batman Arkham City

Batman Arkham City

Batman Arkham City was developed with a recent version of Unreal Engine 3 which supports DirectX 11. Although this mode suffered a major bug in the original version of the game, a patch (1.1) has corrected this. We use the game benchmark.

All the options were pushed to a maximum, including tessellation which was pushed to extreme on part of the scenes tested. We measured performance in Extreme mode (which includes the additional DirectX 11 effects) with FXAA High, MSAA 4x and MSAA 8x.

Hold the mouse over the graph to class cards by performance.

The Radeons suffer with MSAA 8x, a mode which probably saturates the L2 cache and memory controllers. The Radeon HD 7870 is affected most here and finishes behind the Radeon HD 7850.

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Benchmark: Battlefield 3

Battlefield 3

Battlefield 3 runs on Frosbite 2, probably the most advanced graphics engine currently on the market. A deferred rendering engine, it supports tessellation and calculates lighting via a compute shader.

We tested Ultra, High and Normal modes and measured performance with Fraps, on a well-defined route. Note that a patch designed to improve performance on the Radeon HD 7000s came out on the 14th February. Naturally we installed it and noted a gain of between 1 and 2%.

Hold the mouse over the graph to class cards by performance.

In this game the Radeon HD 7870 falls between the GeForce GTX 580 and 570, while the Radeon HD 7850 is placed between the GTX 570 and the GeForce GTX 560 Ti.

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Benchmark: Bulletstorm


Although only in DirectX 9 mode, the rendering is pretty nice, based on version 3.5 of Unreal Engine.

All the graphics options were pushed to a max (high) and we measured performance with Fraps without MSAA, with MSAA 4x and then 8x.

Hold the mouse over the graph to class cards by performance.

The higher the level of MSAA, the better the Radeon HD 7800s are positioned.

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Benchmark: Civilization V

Civilization V

Pretty successful visually, Civilization V uses DirectX 11 to improve quality and optimise performance in the rendering of terrains thanks to tessellation and to implement a special compression of textures thanks to the compute shaders, a compression which allows it to keep the scenes of all the leaders in the memory. This second usage of DirectX 11 doesnít concern us here however as we used the benchmark included on a game card. We zoom in slightly so as to reduce the CPU limitation which has a strong impact in this game.

All settings were pushed to a max and we measured performance with shadows and reflections. The latest patch was installed.

Hold the mouse over the graph to class cards by performance.

The Radeon HD 7000s show a lot of improvement on the Radeon HD 6000s in this game and the Radeon HD 7800s are very efficient. The Radeon HD 7870 is on a par with the GeForce GTX 580 and the Radeon HD 7950 with MSAA, while the Radeon HD 7850 is up on the Radeon HD 6970.

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Benchmark: Crysis 2

Crysis 2

Crysis 2 uses a development of the Crysis Warhead engine optimised for efficiency but adds DirectX 11 support via a patch and this can be quite demanding. As, for example, with tessellation, implemented abusively in collaboration with NVIDIA with the aim of causing Radeon performance to plummet. We have already exposed this issue here.

We measured performance with Fraps on version 1.9 of the game.

Hold the mouse over the graph to class cards by performance.

The Radeon HD 7800s are just behind the GeForce GTX 570 and 580 in this game.

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Benchmark: F1 2011

F1 2011

The latest Codemaster title, F1 2011 uses a slight development of the F1 2010 and DiRT 3 engine, which retains DirectX 11 support.

We pushed all the graphics options to a max and we used the gameís own test tool on the Spa-Rancorchamps circuit with a single F1.

Hold the mouse over the graph to class cards by performance.

MSAA has less of an impact on the Radeons than the GeForces. With MSAA 8x the Radeon HD 7870 and 7850 thus move ahead of their respective GeForce equivalents, the GeForce GTX 580 and 570.

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Benchmark: Metro 2033

Metro 2033
Still one of the most demanding titles, Metro 2033 forces all recent graphics cards to their knees. It supports GPU PhysX but only for the generation of particles during impacts, a rather discreet effect that we therefore didnít activate during the tests. In DirectX 11 mode, performance is identical to DirectX 10 mode but with two additional options: tessellation for characters and a very advanced, very demanding depth of field feature.

We tested it in DirectX 11, at maximum quality (including DoF and MSAA 4x), very high quality as well as with tessellation on and in standard mode without tessellation.

Hold the mouse over the graph to view cards by performance.

No mono-GPU card allows you to play Metro 2033 comfortably at maximum quality.

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Benchmark: Total War Shogun 2

Total War Shogun 2

Total War Shogun 2 has a DirectX 11 patch, developed in collaboration with AMD. Among other things, it gives tessellation support and a higher quality depth of field effect.

We tested it in DirectX 11 mode, at max quality, with MSAA 4x and MLAA as well as with the gameís "balanced" mode, accompanied by MLAA.

Hold the mouse over the graph to class the cards by performance.

The GeForces lag here but make up ground with MSAA on, in which case Radeon performance drops off significantly.

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Performance recap

Performance recap
Although individual game results are obviously worth looking at when you want to gauge performance in a specific game, we have also calculated a performance index based on all tests with the same weight for each game. We set an index of 100 to the Radeon HD 6970:

Hold the mouse over the graph to class the cards by performance.

On average the Radeon HD 7870 is 11% up on the Radeon HD 6970 and the GeForce GTX 570, getting very close to the GeForce GTX 580. At this level of performance it is also fairly close to the Radeon HD 7950.

The Radeon HD 7850 does 5% better than the Radeon HD 6950 and is 14% up on the GeForce GTX 560 Ti, the relative performance of which is down in numerous recent games, NVIDIA probably having halted its optimisation efforts for the Fermi generation.

We noted a trend with the Radeons in all these tests: they tend to suffer more than the GeForces when the deferred rendering engines use MSAA. Itís a complex task to use this type of antialiasing in a deferred rendering engine. Thereís an example in our report: Understanding 3D rendering step by step with 3DMark 11. Although we canít see any technical reasons for this, we imagine that AMD has reduced its optimisation efforts, preferring to highlight the antialiasing carried out during post processing, such as FXAA or MLAA, which is simpler to support.

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Gains with GPU and memory overclocking

Performances with overclocking
We wanted to look at the gains itís possible to obtain by overclocking the Radeon HD 7870, firstly the GPU, which was clocked up by 20%, then the memory, which was also clocked up by 20% and finally with both the memory and the GPU clocked up by 20%.

We also included results for the Radeon HD 7950.

These results were obtained at 1920x1080 with an extreme quality level, except for Metro 2033 where we settled for very high:

Hold the mouse over the graph to see the results in fps.

The GPU overclocking of 20% translates to a gain of between 3 and 16% in games and the memory overclocking to a more modest gain of between 3 and 11%. With both the GPU and the memory overclocked, we observed a gain of between 13 and 18% with an average of 16%.

With the exception of Batman Arkham City where MSAA 8x poses a problem, when the Radeon HD 7870 is overclocked in this way (both the GPU and the memory), it easily overtakes the Radeon HD 7950.

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AMDís Pitcairn GPU is in fact a rather pleasant surprise. Of the three GPUs in the Radeon HD 7000 family, it is by some distance the most efficient for its size and energy consumed.
While it has fewer execution units than Cayman (used in the Radeon HD 6900s), the 28nm fabrication process facilitates a more efficient architecture and a higher clock, allowing Pitcairn to take the lead.

The Pitcairn cards, the Radeon HD 7850 and 7870, rank respectively 5% and 10% ahead of the Radeon HD 6950 and 6970, which they therefore advantageously replace.
Priced at Ä300, the Radeon HD 7870 is even hard on the heels of the Radeon HD 7950, which offers no more than a 6% performance improvement and will therefore become less relevant. The GeForce GTX 580 also suffers by the comparison as it only offers a 3% performance advantage but is priced a good deal higher with much higher energy consumption.

For its part, the Radeon HD 7850 easily outdoes the GeForce GTX 560 Ti and is only 5% down on the GeForce GTX 570. While clearly some distance from the aggressive pricing policy AMD has applied in the past, these two Radeon HD 7800s are definitely well positioned and are very good options for gaming at 1080p. Both cards offer full support of the latest technologies.

For several reasons however, we donít advise you to head straight to your favourite store to get yourself one of these cards. Firstly because they are unlikely to be available for a week or two. Next because the final pricing and designs are still to be confirmed. Here we based our analysis on the price given by Sapphire. Some Radeon HD 7870s are likely to use the reference design tested here which, while offering relatively good performance, could be quieter given the low energy consumption. Numerous customised models will however rapidly become available and should represent the majority of the market.

In the case of the Radeon HD 7850, the design tested here may well not be on sale in stores as AMD has supplied an alternative reference cooling system based on an axial fan, as they did with the Radeon HD 7950. We would of course have preferred to test this model and we would also like to see AMD abandon this bad habit of producing Ďpress editioní graphics cards which donít correspond to the designs on saleÖ

Finally, NVIDIAís response, in the form of the Kepler generation, shouldnít be long in coming now, probably no more than a few weeks. Unless you canít wait, it would therefore be best to give it a few weeks until you have all the information at your disposal before shelling out. Youíre also likely to benefit from somewhat more aggressive pricing when the competition kicks in!

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